# Coconut Documentation¶

## Overview¶

This documentation covers all the features of the Coconut Programming Language, and is intended as a reference/specification, not a tutorialized introduction. For a full introduction and tutorial of Coconut, see the tutorial.

Coconut is a variant of Python built for simple, elegant, Pythonic functional programming. Coconut syntax is a strict superset of Python 3 syntax. Thus, users familiar with Python will already be familiar with most of Coconut.

The Coconut compiler turns Coconut code into Python code. The primary method of accessing the Coconut compiler is through the Coconut command-line utility, which also features an interpreter for real-time compilation. In addition to the command-line utility, Coconut also supports the use of IPython/Jupyter notebooks.

Thought Coconut syntax is primarily based on that of Python, Coconut also takes inspiration from Haskell, CoffeeScript, F#, and patterns.py.

## Try It Out¶

If you want to try Coconut in your browser, check out the online interpreter.

## Installation¶

### Using Pip¶

Since Coconut is hosted on the Python Package Index, it can be installed easily using pip. Simply install Python, open up a command-line prompt, and enter

pip install coconut

which will install Coconut and its required dependencies.

Note: If you have an old version of Coconut installed and you want to upgrade, run pip install --upgrade coconut instead.

If you are encountering errors running pip install coconut, try adding --user or running

pip install --no-deps --upgrade coconut pyparsing

which will force Coconut to use the pure-Python pyparsing module instead of the faster cPyparsing module. If you are still getting errors, you may want to try using conda instead.

If pip install coconut works, but you cannot access the coconut command, be sure that Coconut’s installation location is in your PATH environment variable. On UNIX, that is /usr/local/bin (without --user) or ${HOME}/.local/bin/ (with --user). ### Using Conda¶ If you prefer to use conda instead of pip to manage your Python packages, you can also install Coconut using conda. Just install conda, open up a command-line prompt, and enter conda config --add channels conda-forge conda install coconut which will properly create and build a conda recipe out of Coconut’s conda-forge feedstock. Note: Coconut’s conda recipe uses pyparsing rather than cPyparsing, which may lead to degraded performance relative to installing Coconut via pip. ### Using Homebrew¶ If you prefer to use Homebrew, you can also install Coconut using brew: brew install coconut Note: Coconut’s Homebrew formula may not always be up-to-date with the latest version of Coconut. ### Optional Dependencies¶ Coconut also has optional dependencies, which can be installed by entering pip install coconut[name_of_optional_dependency] or, to install multiple optional dependencies, pip install coconut[opt_dep_1,opt_dep_2] The full list of optional dependencies is: • all: alias for jupyter,watch,jobs,mypy,backports (this is the recommended way to install a feature-complete version of Coconut), • jupyter/ipython: enables use of the --jupyter / --ipython flag, • watch: enables use of the --watch flag, • jobs: improves use of the --jobs flag, • mypy: enables use of the --mypy flag, • backports: enables use of the asyncio library on older Python versions by making use of trollius, the enum library by making use of aenum, and other similar backports. • tests: everything necessary to test the Coconut language itself, • docs: everything necessary to build Coconut’s documentation, and • dev: everything necessary to develop on Coconut, including all of the dependencies above. ### Develop Version¶ Alternatively, if you want to test out Coconut’s latest and greatest, enter pip install coconut-develop which will install the most recent working version from Coconut’s develop branch. Optional dependency installation is supported in the same manner as above. For more information on the current development build, check out the development version of this documentation. Be warned: coconut-develop is likely to be unstable—if you find a bug, please report it by creating a new issue. ## Compilation¶ ### Usage¶ coconut [-h] [--and source dest] [-v] [-t version] [-i] [-p] [-a] [-l] [-k] [-w] [-r] [-n] [-d] [-q] [-s] [--no-tco] [--no-wrap] [-c code] [-j processes] [-f] [--minify] [--jupyter ...] [--mypy ...] [--argv ...] [--tutorial] [--docs] [--style name] [--history-file path] [--vi-mode] [--recursion-limit limit] [--site-install] [--site-uninstall] [--verbose] [--trace] [--profile] [source] [dest] #### Positional Arguments¶ source path to the Coconut file/folder to compile dest destination directory for compiled files (defaults to the source directory) #### Optional Arguments¶ optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit --and source dest additional source/dest pairs to compile -v, -V, --version print Coconut and Python version information -t version, --target version specify target Python version (defaults to universal) -i, --interact force the interpreter to start (otherwise starts if no other command is given) (implies --run) -p, --package compile source as part of a package (defaults to only if source is a directory) -a, --standalone, --stand-alone compile source as standalone files (defaults to only if source is a single file) add line number comments for ease of debugging -k, --keep-lines, --keeplines include source code in comments for ease of debugging -w, --watch watch a directory and recompile on changes -r, --run execute compiled Python -n, --no-write, --nowrite disable writing compiled Python -d, --display print compiled Python -q, --quiet suppress all informational output (combine with --display to write runnable code to stdout) -s, --strict enforce code cleanliness standards --no-tco, --notco disable tail call optimization --no-wrap, --nowrap disable wrapping type annotations in strings and turn off 'from __future__ import annotations' behavior -c code, --code code run Coconut passed in as a string (can also be piped into stdin) -j processes, --jobs processes number of additional processes to use (defaults to 0) (pass 'sys' to use machine default) -f, --force force re-compilation even when source code and compilation parameters haven't changed --minify reduce size of compiled Python --jupyter ..., --ipython ... run Jupyter/IPython with Coconut as the kernel (remaining args passed to Jupyter) --mypy ... run MyPy on compiled Python (remaining args passed to MyPy) (implies --package) --argv ..., --args ... set sys.argv to source plus remaining args for use in the Coconut script being run --tutorial open Coconut's tutorial in the default web browser --docs, --documentation open Coconut's documentation in the default web browser --style name set Pygments syntax highlighting style (or 'list' to list styles) (defaults to COCONUT_STYLE environment variable if it exists, otherwise 'default') --history-file path set history file (or '' for no file) (defaults to '~/.coconut_history') (can be modified by setting COCONUT_HOME environment variable) --vi-mode, --vimode enable vi mode in the interpreter (defaults to False) (can be modified by setting COCONUT_VI_MODE environment variable) --recursion-limit limit, --recursionlimit limit set maximum recursion depth in compiler (defaults to 2000) --site-install, --siteinstall set up coconut.convenience to be imported on Python start --site-uninstall, --siteuninstall revert the effects of --site-install --verbose print verbose debug output --trace print verbose parsing data (only available in coconut-develop) --profile collect and print timing info (only available in coconut-develop) ### Coconut Scripts¶ To run a Coconut file as a script, Coconut provides the command coconut-run <source> <args> as an alias for coconut --run --quiet --target sys <source> --argv <args> which will quietly compile and run <source>, passing any additional arguments to the script, mimicking how the python command works. coconut-run can be used in a Unix shebang line to create a Coconut script by adding the following line to the start of your script: #!/usr/bin/env coconut-run ### Naming Source Files¶ Coconut source files should, so the compiler can recognize them, use the extension .coco (preferred), .coc, or .coconut. When Coconut compiles a .coco (or .coc/.coconut) file, it will compile to another file with the same name, except with .py instead of .coco, which will hold the compiled code. If an extension other than .py is desired for the compiled files, such as .pyde for Python Processing, then that extension can be put before .coco in the source file name, and it will be used instead of .py for the compiled files. For example, name.coco will compile to name.py, whereas name.pyde.coco will compile to name.pyde. ### Compilation Modes¶ Files compiled by the coconut command-line utility will vary based on compilation parameters. If an entire directory of files is compiled (which the compiler will search recursively for any folders containing .coco, .coc, or .coconut files), a __coconut__.py file will be created to house necessary functions (package mode), whereas if only a single file is compiled, that information will be stored within a header inside the file (standalone mode). Standalone mode is better for single files because it gets rid of the overhead involved in importing __coconut__.py, but package mode is better for large packages because it gets rid of the need to run the same Coconut header code again in every file, since it can just be imported from __coconut__.py. By default, if the source argument to the command-line utility is a file, it will perform standalone compilation on it, whereas if it is a directory, it will recursively search for all .coco (or .coc / .coconut) files and perform package compilation on them. Thus, in most cases, the mode chosen by Coconut automatically will be the right one. But if it is very important that no additional files like __coconut__.py be created, for example, then the command-line utility can also be forced to use a specific mode with the --package (-p) and --standalone (-a) flags. ### Compatible Python Versions¶ While Coconut syntax is based off of Python 3, Coconut code compiled in universal mode (the default --target), and the Coconut compiler, should run on any Python version >= 2.6 on the 2.x branch or >= 3.2 on the 3.x branch on either CPython or PyPy. To make Coconut built-ins universal across Python versions, Coconut makes available on any Python version built-ins that only exist in later versions, including automatically overwriting Python 2 built-ins with their Python 3 counterparts. Additionally, Coconut also overwrites some Python 3 built-ins for optimization and enhancement purposes. If access to the original Python versions of any overwritten built-ins is desired, the old built-ins can be retrieved by prefixing them with py_. Specifically, the overwritten built-ins are: • py_chr, • py_hex, • py_input, • py_int, • py_map, • py_object, • py_oct, • py_open, • py_print, • py_range, • py_str, • py_zip, • py_filter, • py_reversed, • py_enumerate, • py_raw_input, • py_xrange, • py_repr, and • py_breakpoint. Note: Coconut’s repr can be somewhat tricky, as it will attempt to remove the u before reprs of unicode strings, but will not always be able to do so if the unicode string is nested. For standard library compatibility, Coconut automatically maps imports under Python 3 names to imports under Python 2 names. Thus, Coconut will automatically take care of any standard library modules that were renamed from Python 2 to Python 3 if just the Python 3 name is used. For modules or objects that only exist in Python 3, however, Coconut has no way of maintaining compatibility. Additionally, Coconut allows the __set_name__ magic method for descriptors to work on any Python version. Finally, while Coconut will try to compile Python-3-specific syntax to its universal equivalent, the following constructs have no equivalent in Python 2, and require the specification of a target of at least 3 to be used: • the nonlocal keyword, • exec used in a context where it must be a function, • keyword-only function parameters (use pattern-matching function definition instead), • @ as matrix multiplication (requires --target 3.5), • async and await statements (requires --target 3.5), • := assignment expressions (requires --target 3.8), • positional-only function parameters (use pattern-matching function definition instead) (requires --target 3.8), and • except* multi-except statement (requires --target 3.11). ### Allowable Targets¶ If the version of Python that the compiled code will be running on is known ahead of time, a target should be specified with --target. The given target will only affect the compiled code and whether or not the Python-3-specific syntax detailed above is allowed. Where Python 3 and Python 2 syntax standards differ, Coconut syntax will always follow Python 3 across all targets. The supported targets are: • universal (default) (will work on any of the below), • 2, 2.6 (will work on any Python >= 2.6 but < 3), • 2.7 (will work on any Python >= 2.7 but < 3), • 3, 3.2 (will work on any Python >= 3.2), • 3.3 (will work on any Python >= 3.3), • 3.4 (will work on any Python >= 3.4), • 3.5 (will work on any Python >= 3.5), • 3.6 (will work on any Python >= 3.6), • 3.7 (will work on any Python >= 3.7), • 3.8 (will work on any Python >= 3.8), • 3.9 (will work on any Python >= 3.9), • 3.10 (will work on any Python >= 3.10), • 3.11 (will work on any Python >= 3.11), and • sys (chooses the target corresponding to the current Python version). Note: Periods are ignored in target specifications, such that the target 27 is equivalent to the target 2.7. ### strict Mode¶ If the --strict (-s for short) flag is enabled, Coconut will perform additional checks on the code being compiled. It is recommended that you use the --strict flag if you are starting a new Coconut project, as it will help you write cleaner code. Specifically, the extra checks done by --strict are • disabling deprecated features (making them entirely unavailable to code compiled with --strict), • warning about unused imports, • warning on missing __init__.coco files when compiling in --package mode, • throwing errors on various style problems (see list below). The style issues which will cause --strict to throw an error are: • mixing of tabs and spaces (without --strict will show a warning), • use of from __future__ imports (Coconut does these automatically) (without --strict will show a warning) • missing new line at end of file, • trailing whitespace at end of lines, • semicolons at end of lines, • use of the Python-style lambda statement (use Coconut’s lambda syntax instead), • Python 3.10/PEP-634-style match ...: case ...: syntax (use Coconut’s case ...: match ...: syntax instead), • Python-3.10/PEP-634-style dotted names in pattern-matching (Coconut style is to preface these with an =), • inheriting from object in classes (Coconut does this automatically), • use of u to denote Unicode strings (all Coconut strings are Unicode strings), and • use of backslash continuation (use parenthetical continuation instead). ## Integrations¶ ### Syntax Highlighting¶ Text editors with support for Coconut syntax highlighting are: Alternatively, if none of the above work for you, you can just treat Coconut as Python. Simply set up your editor so it interprets all .coco files as Python and that should highlight most of your code well enough. #### SublimeText¶ Coconut syntax highlighting for SublimeText requires that Package Control, the standard package manager for SublimeText, be installed. Once that is done, simply: 1. open the SublimeText command palette by pressing Ctrl+Shift+P (or Cmd+Shift+P on Mac), 2. type and enter Package Control: Install Package, and 3. finally type and enter Coconut. To make sure everything is working properly, open a .coco file, and make sure Coconut appears in the bottom right-hand corner. If something else appears, like Plain Text, click on it, select Open all with current extension as... at the top of the resulting menu, and then select Coconut. Note: Coconut syntax highlighting for SublimeText is provided by the sublime-coconut package. #### Pygments¶ The same pip install coconut command that installs the Coconut command-line utility will also install the coconut Pygments lexer. How to use this lexer depends on the Pygments-enabled application being used, but in general simply use the .coco file extension (should be all you need to do for Spyder) and/or enter coconut as the language being highlighted and Pygments should be able to figure it out. For example, this documentation is generated with Sphinx, with the syntax highlighting you see created by adding the line highlight_language = "coconut" to Coconut’s conf.py. ### IPython/Jupyter Support¶ If you prefer IPython (the python kernel for the Jupyter framework) to the normal Python shell, Coconut can be used as a Jupyter kernel or IPython extension. #### Kernel¶ If Coconut is used as a kernel, all code in the console or notebook will be sent directly to Coconut instead of Python to be evaluated. Otherwise, the Coconut kernel behaves exactly like the IPython kernel, including support for %magic commands. Simply installing Coconut should add a Coconut kernel to your Jupyter/IPython notebooks. If you are having issues accessing the Coconut kernel, however, the command coconut --jupyter will re-install the Coconut kernel to ensure it is using the current Python as well as add the additional kernels Coconut (Default Python), Coconut (Default Python 2), and Coconut (Default Python 3) which will use, respectively, the Python accessible as python, python2, and python3 (these kernels are accessible in the console as coconut_py, coconut_py2, and coconut_py3). Furthermore, the Coconut kernel fully supports nb_conda_kernels to enable accessing the Coconut kernel in one Conda environment from another Conda environment. Coconut also provides the following convenience commands: • coconut --jupyter notebook will ensure that the Coconut kernel is available and launch a Jupyter/IPython notebook. • coconut --jupyter console will launch a Jupyter/IPython console using the Coconut kernel. • coconut --jupyter lab will ensure that the Coconut kernel is available and launch JupyterLab. Additionally, Jupytext contains special support for the Coconut kernel. #### Extension¶ If Coconut is used as an extension, a special magic command will send snippets of code to be evaluated using Coconut instead of IPython, but IPython will still be used as the default. The line magic %load_ext coconut will load Coconut as an extension, providing the %coconut and %%coconut magics and adding Coconut built-ins. The %coconut line magic will run a line of Coconut with default parameters, and the %%coconut block magic will take command-line arguments on the first line, and run any Coconut code provided in the rest of the cell with those parameters. ### MyPy Integration¶ Coconut has the ability to integrate with MyPy to provide optional static type-checking, including for all Coconut built-ins. Simply pass --mypy to coconut to enable MyPy integration, though be careful to pass it only as the last argument, since all arguments after --mypy are passed to mypy, not Coconut. You can also call mypy directly on the compiled Coconut if you run coconut --mypy at least once and then add ~/.coconut_stubs to your MYPYPATH. To install the stubs without launching the interpreter, you can also run coconut --mypy install instead of coconut --mypy. To explicitly annotate your code with types for MyPy to check, Coconut supports Python 3 function type annotations, Python 3.6 variable type annotations, and even Coconut’s own enhanced type annotation syntax. By default, all type annotations are compiled to Python-2-compatible type comments, which means it all works on any Python version. Coconut even supports --mypy in the interpreter, which will intelligently scan each new line of code, in the context of previous lines, for newly-introduced MyPy errors. For example: >>> a: str = count()[0] <string>:14: error: Incompatible types in assignment (expression has type "int", variable has type "str") >>> reveal_type(a) 0 <string>:19: note: Revealed type is 'builtins.unicode' For more information on reveal_type, see reveal_type and reveal_locals. Sometimes, MyPy will not know how to handle certain Coconut constructs, such as addpattern. For the addpattern case, it is recommended to pass --allow-redefinition to MyPy (i.e. run coconut <args> --mypy --allow-redefinition), though in some cases --allow-redefinition may not be sufficient. In that case, either hide the offending code using TYPE_CHECKING or put a # type: ignore comment on the Coconut line which is generating the line MyPy is complaining about (you can figure out what line this is using --line-numbers) and the comment will be added to every generated line. ## Operators¶ In order of precedence, highest first, the operators supported in Coconut are: ===================== ========================== Symbol(s) Associativity ===================== ========================== .. n/a f x n/a await x n/a ** right +, -, ~ unary *, /, //, %, @ left +, - left <<, >> left & left ^ left | left :: n/a (lazy) a b c left (captures lambda) ?? left (short-circuits) ..>, <.., ..*>, <*.., n/a (captures lambda) ..**>, <**.. |>, <|, |*>, <*|, left (captures lambda) |**>, <**| ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=, in, not in, is, is not n/a not unary and left (short-circuits) or left (short-circuits) x if c else y, ternary left (short-circuits) if c then x else y -> right ===================== ========================== Note that because addition has a greater precedence than piping, expressions of the form x |> y + z are equivalent to x |> (y + z). ### Lambdas¶ Coconut provides the simple, clean -> operator as an alternative to Python’s lambda statements. The syntax for the -> operator is (parameters) -> expression (or parameter -> expression for one-argument lambdas). The operator has the same precedence as the old statement, which means it will often be necessary to surround the lambda in parentheses, and is right-associative. Additionally, Coconut also supports an implicit usage of the -> operator of the form (-> expression), which is equivalent to ((_=None) -> expression), which allows an implicit lambda to be used both when no arguments are required, and when one argument (assigned to _) is required. Note: If normal lambda syntax is insufficient, Coconut also supports an extended lambda syntax in the form of statement lambdas. Statement lambdas support full statements rather than just expressions and allow type annotations for their parameters. #### Rationale¶ In Python, lambdas are ugly and bulky, requiring the entire word lambda to be written out every time one is constructed. This is fine if in-line functions are very rarely needed, but in functional programming in-line functions are an essential tool. #### Python Docs¶ Lambda forms (lambda expressions) have the same syntactic position as expressions. They are a shorthand to create anonymous functions; the expression (arguments) -> expression yields a function object. The unnamed object behaves like a function object defined with: def <lambda>(arguments): return expression Note that functions created with lambda forms cannot contain statements or annotations. #### Example¶ Coconut: dubsums = map((x, y) -> 2*(x+y), range(0, 10), range(10, 20)) dubsums |> list |> print Python: dubsums = map(lambda x, y: 2*(x+y), range(0, 10), range(10, 20)) print(list(dubsums)) #### Implicit Lambdas¶ Coconut also supports implicit lambdas, which allow a lambda to take either no arguments or a single argument. Implicit lambdas are formed with the usual Coconut lambda operator ->, in the form (-> expression). This is equivalent to ((_=None) -> expression). When an argument is passed to an implicit lambda, it will be assigned to _, replacing the default value None. Below are two examples of implicit lambdas. The first uses the implicit argument _, while the second does not. Single Argument Example: square = (-> _**2) No-Argument Example: import random get_random_number = (-> random.random()) Note: Nesting implicit lambdas can lead to problems with the scope of the _ parameter to each lambda. It is recommended that nesting implicit lambdas be avoided. ### Partial Application¶ Coconut uses a$ sign right after a function’s name but before the open parenthesis used to call the function to denote partial application.

Coconut’s partial application also supports the use of a ? to skip partially applying an argument, deferring filling in that argument until the partially-applied function is called. This is useful if you want to partially apply arguments that aren’t first in the argument order.

#### Rationale¶

Partial application, or currying, is a mainstay of functional programming, and for good reason: it allows the dynamic customization of functions to fit the needs of where they are being used. Partial application allows a new function to be created out of an old function with some of its arguments pre-specified.

#### Python Docs¶

Return a new partial object which when called will behave like func called with the positional arguments args and keyword arguments keywords. If more arguments are supplied to the call, they are appended to args. If additional keyword arguments are supplied, they extend and override keywords. Roughly equivalent to:

def partial(func, *args, **keywords):
def newfunc(*fargs, **fkeywords):
newkeywords = keywords.copy()
newkeywords.update(fkeywords)
return func(*(args + fargs), **newkeywords)
newfunc.func = func
newfunc.args = args
newfunc.keywords = keywords
return newfunc

The partial object is used for partial function application which “freezes” some portion of a function’s arguments and/or keywords resulting in a new object with a simplified signature.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

expnums = range(5) |> map$(pow$(?, 2))
expnums |> list |> print

Python:

# unlike this simple lambda, $produces a pickleable object expnums = map(lambda x: pow(x, 2), range(5)) print(list(expnums)) ### Pipeline¶ Coconut uses pipe operators for pipeline-style function application. All the operators have a precedence in-between function composition pipes and comparisons, and are left-associative. All operators also support in-place versions. The different operators are: (|>) => pipe forward (|*>) => multiple-argument pipe forward (|**>) => keyword argument pipe forward (<|) => pipe backward (<*|) => multiple-argument pipe backward (<**|) => keyword argument pipe backward (|?>) => None-aware pipe forward (|?*>) => None-aware multi-arg pipe forward (|?**>) => None-aware keyword arg pipe forward Additionally, all pipe operators support a lambda as the last argument, despite lambdas having a lower precedence. Thus, a |> x -> b |> c is equivalent to a |> (x -> b |> c), not a |> (x -> b) |> c. Note also that the None-aware pipe operators here are equivalent to a monadic bind treating the object as a Maybe monad composed of either None or the given object. Note: To visually spread operations across several lines, just use parenthetical continuation. #### Optimizations¶ It is common in Coconut to write code that uses pipes to pass an object through a series of partials and/or implicit partials, as in obj |> .attribute |> .method(args) |> func$(args) |> .[index]

which is often much more readable, as it allows the operations to be written in the order in which they are performed, instead of as in

func(args, obj.attribute.method(args))[index]

where func has to go at the beginning.

If Coconut compiled each of the partials in the pipe syntax as an actual partial application object, it would make the Coconut-style syntax significantly slower than the Python-style syntax. Thus, Coconut does not do that. If any of the above styles of partials or implicit partials are used in pipes, they will whenever possible be compiled to the Python-style syntax, producing no intermediate partial application objects.

This applies even to in-place pipes such as |>=.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

def sq(x) = x**2
(1, 2) |*> (+) |> sq |> print

Python:

import operator
def sq(x): return x**2

### Compose¶

Coconut has three basic function composition operators: .., ..>, and <... Both .. and <.. use math-style “backwards” function composition, where the first function is called last, while ..> uses “forwards” function composition, where the first function is called first. Forwards and backwards function composition pipes cannot be used together in the same expression (unlike normal pipes) and have precedence in-between None-coalescing and normal pipes. The ..> and <.. function composition pipe operators also have ..*> and <*.. forms which are, respectively, the equivalents of |*> and <*| as well as ..**> and <**.. forms which correspond to |**> and <**|.

The .. operator has lower precedence than attribute access, slices, function calls, etc., but higher precedence than all other operations while the ..> pipe operators have a precedence directly higher than normal pipes.

The in-place function composition operators are ..=, ..>=, <..=, ..*>=, <*..=, ..**>, and ..**>.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

fog = f..g
f_into_g = f ..> g

Python:

# unlike these simple lambdas, Coconut produces pickleable objects
fog = lambda *args, **kwargs: f(g(*args, **kwargs))
f_into_g = lambda *args, **kwargs: g(f(*args, **kwargs))

### Chain¶

Coconut uses the :: operator for iterator chaining. Coconut’s iterator chaining is done lazily, in that the arguments are not evaluated until they are needed. It has a precedence in-between bitwise or and infix calls. The in-place operator is ::=.

#### Rationale¶

A useful tool to make working with iterators as easy as working with sequences is the ability to lazily combine multiple iterators together. This operation is called chain, and is equivalent to addition with sequences, except that nothing gets evaluated until it is needed.

#### Python Docs¶

Make an iterator that returns elements from the first iterable until it is exhausted, then proceeds to the next iterable, until all of the iterables are exhausted. Used for treating consecutive sequences as a single sequence. Chained inputs are evaluated lazily. Roughly equivalent to:

def chain(*iterables):
# chain('ABC', 'DEF') --> A B C D E F
for it in iterables:
for element in it:
yield element

#### Example¶

Coconut:

def N(n=0) = (n,) :: N(n+1)  # no infinite loop because :: is lazy

(range(-10, 0) :: N())$[5:15] |> list |> print Python: Can’t be done without a complicated iterator comprehension in place of the lazy chaining. See the compiled code for the Python syntax. ### Iterator Slicing¶ Coconut uses a$ sign right after an iterator before a slice to perform iterator slicing. Coconut’s iterator slicing works much the same as Python’s sequence slicing, and looks much the same as Coconut’s partial application, but with brackets instead of parentheses.

Iterator slicing works just like sequence slicing, including support for negative indices and slices, and support for slice objects in the same way as can be done with normal slicing. Iterator slicing makes no guarantee, however, that the original iterator passed to it be preserved (to preserve the iterator, use Coconut’s tee or reiterable built-ins).

Coconut’s iterator slicing is very similar to Python’s itertools.islice, but unlike itertools.islice, Coconut’s iterator slicing supports negative indices, and will preferentially call an object’s __iter_getitem__ (Coconut-specific magic method, preferred) or __getitem__ (general Python magic method), if they exist. Coconut’s iterator slicing is also optimized to work well with all of Coconut’s built-in objects, only computing the elements of each that are actually necessary to extract the desired slice.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

map(x -> x*2, range(10**100))$[-1] |> print Python: Can’t be done without a complicated iterator slicing function and inspection of custom objects. The necessary definitions in Python can be found in the Coconut header. ### None Coalescing¶ Coconut provides ?? as a None-coalescing operator, similar to the ?? null-coalescing operator in C# and Swift. Additionally, Coconut implements all of the None-aware operators proposed in PEP 505. Coconut’s ?? operator evaluates to its left operand if that operand is not None, otherwise its right operand. The expression foo ?? bar evaluates to foo as long as it isn’t None, and to bar if it is. The None-coalescing operator is short-circuiting, such that if the left operand is not None, the right operand won’t be evaluated. This allows the right operand to be a potentially expensive operation without incurring any unnecessary cost. The None-coalescing operator has a precedence in-between infix function calls and composition pipes, and is left-associative. #### Example¶ Coconut: could_be_none() ?? calculate_default_value() Python: (lambda result: result if result is not None else calculate_default_value())(could_be_none()) #### Coalescing Assignment Operator¶ The in-place assignment operator is ??=, which allows conditionally setting a variable if it is currently None. foo = 1 bar = None foo ??= 10 # foo is still 1 bar ??= 10 # bar is now 10 As described with the standard ?? operator, the None-coalescing assignment operator will not evaluate the right hand side unless the left hand side is None. baz = 0 baz ??= expensive_task() # right hand side isn't evaluated #### Other None-Aware Operators¶ Coconut also allows a single ? before attribute access, function calling, partial application, and (iterator) indexing to short-circuit the rest of the evaluation if everything so far evaluates to None. This is sometimes known as a “safe navigation” operator. When using a None-aware operator for member access, either for a method or an attribute, the syntax is obj?.method() or obj?.attr respectively. obj?.attr is equivalent to obj.attr if obj is not None else obj. This does not prevent an AttributeError if attr is not an attribute or method of obj. The None-aware indexing operator is used identically to normal indexing, using ?[] instead of []. seq?[index] is equivalent to the expression seq[index] is seq is not None else seq. Using this operator will not prevent an IndexError if index is outside the bounds of seq. Coconut also supports None-aware pipe operators. ##### Example¶ Coconut: could_be_none?.attr # attribute access could_be_none?(arg) # function calling could_be_none?.method() # method calling could_be_none?$(arg)    # partial application
could_be_none()?[0]     # indexing
could_be_none()?.attr[index].method()

Python:

import functools
(lambda result: None if result is None else result.attr)(could_be_none())
(lambda result: None if result is None else result(arg))(could_be_none())
(lambda result: None if result is None else result.method())(could_be_none())
(lambda result: None if result is None else functools.partial(result, arg))(could_be_none())
(lambda result: None if result is None else result[0])(could_be_none())
(lambda result: None if result is None else result.attr[index].method())(could_be_none())

### Expanded Indexing for Iterables¶

Beyond indexing standard Python sequences, Coconut supports indexing into a number of iterables, including range and map, which do not support random access in all Python versions but do in Coconut. In Coconut, indexing into an iterable of this type uses the same syntax as indexing into a sequence in vanilla Python.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

range(0, 12, 2)[4]  # 8

map((i->i*2), range(10))[2]  # 4

Python: Can’t be done quickly without Coconut’s iterable indexing, which requires many complicated pieces. The necessary definitions in Python can be found in the Coconut header.

#### Indexing into filter¶

Coconut cannot index into filter directly, as there is no efficient way to do so.

range(10) |> filter$(i->i>3) |> .[0] # doesn't work In order to make this work, you can explicitly use iterator slicing, which is less efficient in the general case: range(10) |> filter$(i->i>3) |> .$[0] # works For more information on Coconut’s iterator slicing, see here. ### Unicode Alternatives¶ Coconut supports Unicode alternatives to many different operator symbols. The Unicode alternatives are relatively straightforward, and chosen to reflect the look and/or meaning of the original symbol. #### Full List¶ (\u2192) => "->" (\u21a6) => "|>" (\u21a4) => "<|" *↦ (*\u21a6) => "|*>" ↤* (\u21a4*) => "<*|" **↦ (**\u21a6) => "|**>" ↤** (\u21a4**) => "<**|" × (\xd7) => "*" (\u2191) => "**" ÷ (\xf7) => "/" ÷/ (\xf7/) => "//" (\u2218) => ".." ∘> (\u2218>) => "..>" <∘ (<\u2218) => "<.." ∘*> (\u2218*>) => "..*>" <*∘ (<*\u2218) => "<*.." ∘**> (\u2218**>) => "..**>" <**∘ (<**\u2218) => "<**.." (\u2212) => "-" (only subtraction) (\u207b) => "-" (only negation) ¬ (\xac) => "~" (\u2260) or ¬= (\xac=) => "!=" (\u2264) => "<=" (\u2265) => ">=" (\u2227) or (\u2229) => "&" (\u2228) or (\u222a) => "|" (\u22bb) or (\u2295) => "^" « (\xab) => "<<" » (\xbb) => ">>" (\u2026) => "..." (\u22c5) => "@" (only matrix multiplication) λ (\u03bb) => "lambda" ## Keywords¶ ### data¶ Coconut’s data keyword is used to create immutable, algebraic data types with built-in support for destructuring pattern-matching, fmap, and typed equality. The syntax for data blocks is a cross between the syntax for functions and the syntax for classes. The first line looks like a function definition, but the rest of the body looks like a class, usually containing method definitions. This is because while data blocks actually end up as classes in Python, Coconut automatically creates a special, immutable constructor based on the given arguments. Coconut data statement syntax looks like: data <name>(<args>) [from <inherits>]: <body> <name> is the name of the new data type, <args> are the arguments to its constructor as well as the names of its attributes, <body> contains the data type’s methods, and <inherits> optionally contains any desired base classes. Coconut allows data fields in <args> to have defaults and/or type annotations attached to them, and supports a starred parameter at the end to collect extra arguments. Writing constructors for data types must be done using the __new__ method instead of the __init__ method. For helping to easily write __new__ methods, Coconut provides the makedata built-in. Subclassing data types can be done easily by inheriting from them either in another data statement or a normal Python class. If a normal class statement is used, making the new subclass immutable will require adding the line __slots__ = () which will need to be put in the subclass body before any method or attribute definitions. If you need to inherit magic methods from a base class in your data type, such subclassing is the recommended method, as the data ... from ... syntax will ovewrite any magic methods in the base class with magic methods built for the new data type. #### Rationale¶ A mainstay of functional programming that Coconut improves in Python is the use of values, or immutable data types. Immutable data can be very useful because it guarantees that once you have some data it won’t change, but in Python creating custom immutable data types is difficult. Coconut makes it very easy by providing data blocks. #### Examples¶ Coconut: data vector2(x:int=0, y:int=0): def __abs__(self): return (self.x**2 + self.y**2)**.5 v = vector2(3, 4) v |> print # all data types come with a built-in __repr__ v |> abs |> print v.x = 2 # this will fail because data objects are immutable vector2() |> print Showcases the syntax, features, and immutable nature of data types, as well as the use of default arguments and type annotations. data Empty() data Leaf(n) data Node(l, r) def size(Empty()) = 0 @addpattern(size) def size(Leaf(n)) = 1 @addpattern(size) def size(Node(l, r)) = size(l) + size(r) size(Node(Empty(), Leaf(10))) == 1 Showcases the algebraic nature of data types when combined with pattern-matching. data vector(*pts): """Immutable arbitrary-length vector.""" def __abs__(self) = self.pts |> map$(pow$(?, 2)) |> sum |> pow$(?, 0.5)

vector(*other_pts) = other
assert len(other_pts) == len(self.pts)
map((+), self.pts, other_pts) |*> vector

def __neg__(self) =
self.pts |> map$((-)) |*> vector def __sub__(self, other) = self + -other Showcases starred data declaration. Python: Can’t be done without a series of method definitions for each data type. See the compiled code for the Python syntax. ### match¶ Coconut provides fully-featured, functional pattern-matching through its match statements. #### Overview¶ Match statements follow the basic syntax match <pattern> in <value>. The match statement will attempt to match the value against the pattern, and if successful, bind any variables in the pattern to whatever is in the same position in the value, and execute the code below the match statement. Match statements also support, in their basic syntax, an if <cond> that will check the condition after executing the match before executing the code below, and an else statement afterwards that will only be executed if the match statement is not. What is allowed in the match statement’s pattern has no equivalent in Python, and thus the specifications below are provided to explain it. #### Syntax Specification¶ Coconut match statement syntax is match <pattern> [not] in <value> [if <cond>]: <body> [else: <body>] where <value> is the item to match against, <cond> is an optional additional check, and <body> is simply code that is executed if the header above it succeeds. <pattern> follows its own, special syntax, defined roughly like so: pattern ::= and_pattern ("or" and_pattern)* # match any and_pattern ::= as_pattern ("and" as_pattern)* # match all as_pattern ::= infix_pattern ("as" name)* # explicit binding infix_pattern ::= bar_or_pattern ("" EXPR "" EXPR)* # infix check bar_or_pattern ::= pattern ("|" pattern)* # match any base_pattern ::= ( "(" pattern ")" # parentheses | "None" | "True" | "False" # constants | ["as"] NAME # variable binding | "=" EXPR # check | DOTTED_NAME # implicit check (disabled in destructuring assignment) | NUMBER # numbers | STRING # strings | NAME "(" patterns ")" # data types (or classes if using PEP 634 syntax) | "data" NAME "(" patterns ")" # data types | "class" NAME "(" patterns ")" # classes | pattern "is" exprs # isinstance check | "{" pattern_pairs # dictionaries ["," "**" (NAME | "{}")] "}" | ["s"] "{" pattern_consts "}" # sets | (EXPR) -> pattern # view patterns | "(" patterns ")" # sequences can be in tuple form | "[" patterns "]" # or in list form | "(|" patterns "|)" # lazy lists | ("(" | "[") # star splits patterns "*" middle patterns (")" | "]") | ( # head-tail splits "(" patterns ")" | "[" patterns "]" ) "+" pattern | pattern "+" ( # init-last splits "(" patterns ")" | "[" patterns "]" ) | ( # head-last splits "(" patterns ")" | "[" patterns "]" ) "+" pattern "+" ( "(" patterns ")" # this match must be the same | "[" patterns "]" # construct as the first match ) | ( # iterator splits "(" patterns ")" | "[" patterns "]" | "(|" patterns "|)" ) "::" pattern | ([STRING "+"] NAME # complex string matching ["+" STRING]) ) #### Semantics Specification¶ match statements will take their pattern and attempt to “match” against it, performing the checks and deconstructions on the arguments as specified by the pattern. The different constructs that can be specified in a pattern, and their function, are: • Constants, Numbers, and Strings: will only match to the same constant, number, or string in the same position in the arguments. • Variable Bindings: will match to anything, and will be bound to whatever they match to, with some exceptions: • If the same variable is used multiple times, a check will be performed that each use matches to the same value. • If the variable name _ is used, nothing will be bound and everything will always match to it (_ is Coconut’s “wildcard”). • Explicit Bindings (<pattern> as <var>): will bind <var> to <pattern>. • Checks (=<expr>): will check that whatever is in that position is == to the expression <expr>. • isinstance Checks (<var> is <types>): will check that whatever is in that position isinstance of <types> before binding the <var>. • Infix Checks (<pattern> <op> <expr>): will check that the operator <op>$(<expr>) returns a truthy value when called on whatever is in that position, then matches <pattern>.

• Data Types (<name>(<args>)): will check that whatever is in that position is of data type <name> and will match the attributes to <args>. Includes support for positional arguments, named arguments, and starred arguments.

• Classes (class <name>(<args>)): does PEP-634-style class matching.

• Lists ([<patterns>]), Tuples ((<patterns>)): will only match a sequence (collections.abc.Sequence) of the same length, and will check the contents against <patterns>.

• Lazy lists ((|<patterns>|)): same as list or tuple matching, but checks for an Iterable (collections.abc.Iterable) instead of a Sequence.

• Fixed-Length Dicts ({<pairs>}): will only match a mapping (collections.abc.Mapping) of the same length, and will check the contents against <pairs>.

• Dicts With Rest ({<pairs>, **<rest>}): will match a mapping (collections.abc.Mapping) containing all the <pairs>, and will put a dict of everything else into <rest>.

• Sets ({<constants>}): will only match a set (collections.abc.Set) of the same length and contents.

• View Patterns ((<expression>) -> <pattern>): calls <expression> on the item being matched and matches the result to <pattern>. The match fails if a MatchError is raised. <expression> may be unparenthesized only when it is a single atom.

• Head-Tail Splits (<list/tuple> + <var>): will match the beginning of the sequence against the <list/tuple>, then bind the rest to <var>, and make it the type of the construct used.

• Init-Last Splits (<var> + <list/tuple>): exactly the same as head-tail splits, but on the end instead of the beginning of the sequence.

• Head-Last Splits (<list/tuple> + <var> + <list/tuple>): the combination of a head-tail and an init-last split.

• Iterator Splits (<list/tuple/lazy list> :: <var>): will match the beginning of an iterable (collections.abc.Iterable) against the <list/tuple/lazy list>, then bind the rest to <var> or check that the iterable is done.

• Complex String Matching (<string> + <var> + <string>): matches strings that start and end with the given substrings, binding the middle to <var>.

Note: Like iterator slicing, iterator and lazy list matching make no guarantee that the original iterator matched against be preserved (to preserve the iterator, use Coconut’s tee or reiterable built-ins).

When checking whether or not an object can be matched against in a particular fashion, Coconut makes use of Python’s abstract base classes. Therefore, to ensure proper matching for a custom object, it’s recommended to register it with the proper abstract base classes.

#### Examples¶

Coconut:

def factorial(value):
match 0 in value:
return 1
else: match n is int in value if n > 0:  # Coconut allows nesting of statements on the same line
return n * factorial(n-1)
else:
raise TypeError("invalid argument to factorial of: "+repr(value))

3 |> factorial |> print

Showcases else statements, which work much like else statements in Python: the code under an else statement is only executed if the corresponding match fails.

data point(x, y):
def transform(self, other):
match point(x, y) in other:
return point(self.x + x, self.y + y)
else:
raise TypeError("arg to transform must be a point")

point(1,2) |> point(3,4).transform |> print
point(1,2) |> (==)$(point(1,2)) |> print Showcases matching to data types and the default equality operator. Values defined by the user with the data statement can be matched against and their contents accessed by specifically referencing arguments to the data type’s constructor. class Tree data Empty() from Tree data Leaf(n) from Tree data Node(l, r) from Tree def depth(Tree()) = 0 @addpattern(depth) def depth(Tree(n)) = 1 @addpattern(depth) def depth(Tree(l, r)) = 1 + max([depth(l), depth(r)]) Empty() |> depth |> print Leaf(5) |> depth |> print Node(Leaf(2), Node(Empty(), Leaf(3))) |> depth |> print Showcases how the combination of data types and match statements can be used to powerful effect to replicate the usage of algebraic data types in other functional programming languages. def duplicate_first([x] + xs as l) = [x] + l [1,2,3] |> duplicate_first |> print Showcases head-tail splitting, one of the most common uses of pattern-matching, where a + <var> (or :: <var> for any iterable) at the end of a list or tuple literal can be used to match the rest of the sequence. def sieve([head] :: tail) = [head] :: sieve(n for n in tail if n % head) @addpattern(sieve) def sieve((||)) = [] Showcases how to match against iterators, namely that the empty iterator case ((||)) must come last, otherwise that case will exhaust the whole iterator before any other pattern has a chance to match against it. Python: Can’t be done without a long series of checks for each match statement. See the compiled code for the Python syntax. ### case¶ Coconut’s case statement is an extension of Coconut’s match statement for performing multiple match statements against the same value, where only one of them should succeed. Unlike lone match statements, only one match statement inside of a case block will ever succeed, and thus more general matches should be put below more specific ones. Each pattern in a case block is checked until a match is found, and then the corresponding body is executed, and the case block terminated. The syntax for case blocks is case <value>: match <pattern> [if <cond>]: <body> match <pattern> [if <cond>]: <body> ... [else: <body>] where <pattern> is any match pattern, <value> is the item to match against, <cond> is an optional additional check, and <body> is simply code that is executed if the header above it succeeds. Note the absence of an in in the match statements: that’s because the <value> in case <value> is taking its place. If no else is present and no match succeeds, then the case statement is simply skipped over as with match statements (though unlike destructuring assignments). Additionally, to help disambiguate Coconut’s case syntax from Python 3.10’s PEP 634 syntax (which Coconut also supports—see below), cases can be used as the top-level keyword instead of case, as in: cases <value>: match <pattern>: <body> #### PEP 634 Support¶ Additionally, since Coconut is a strict superset of Python, Coconut has full Python 3.10+ PEP 634 support. Note that, when using PEP 634 match-case syntax, Coconut will use PEP 634 pattern-matching rules rather than Coconut pattern-matching rules, though a warning will always be issued when those rules conflict. To use PEP 634 pattern-matching, the syntax is: match <value>: case <pattern> [if <cond>]: <body> case <pattern> [if <cond>]: <body> ... [else: <body>] As Coconut’s pattern-matching rules and the PEP 634 rules sometimes conflict (specifically for classes and dictionaries), it is recommended to just always use Coconut-style pattern-matching (e.g. case ...: match ...: instead of match ...: case ...:) and use the following provided special constructs for getting PEP-634-style behavior: • for matching dictionaries PEP-634-style, use {..., **_} to denote that the dictionary can contain extra unmatched items (to explicitly request the Coconut behavior, instead use {..., **{}}) and • for matching classes PEP-634-style, use class cls_name(args) to denote that a class match rather than a data match is desired (to explicitly request a Coconut-style data match, instead use data data_name(args)). Note that --strict disables PEP-634-style pattern-matching syntax entirely. #### Examples¶ Coconut: def classify_sequence(value): out = "" # unlike with normal matches, only one of the patterns case value: # will match, and out will only get appended to once match (): out += "empty" match (_,): out += "singleton" match (x,x): out += "duplicate pair of "+str(x) match (_,_): out += "pair" match _ is (tuple, list): out += "sequence" else: raise TypeError() return out [] |> classify_sequence |> print () |> classify_sequence |> print [1] |> classify_sequence |> print (1,1) |> classify_sequence |> print (1,2) |> classify_sequence |> print (1,1,1) |> classify_sequence |> print Example of using Coconut’s case syntax. match {"a": 1, "b": 2}: case {"a": a}: pass case _: assert False assert a == 1 Example of Coconut’s PEP 634 support. Python: Can’t be done without a long series of checks for each match statement. See the compiled code for the Python syntax. ### match data¶ In addition to normal data statements, Coconut also supports pattern-matching data statements that enable the use of Coconut’s pattern-matching syntax to define the data type’s constructor. Pattern-matching data types look like [match] data <name>(<patterns>) [from <base class>]: <body> where <patterns> are exactly as in pattern-matching functions. It is important to keep in mind that pattern-matching data types vary from normal data types in a variety of ways. First, like pattern-matching functions, they raise MatchError instead of TypeError when passed the wrong arguments. Second, pattern-matching data types will not do any special handling of starred arguments. Thus, data vec(*xs) when iterated over will iterate over all the elements of xs, but match data vec(*xs) when iterated over will only give the single element xs. #### Example¶ Coconut: data namedpt(name is str, x is int, y is int): def mag(self) = (self.x**2 + self.y**2)**0.5 Python: Can’t be done without a series of method definitions for each data type. See the compiled code for the Python syntax. ### where¶ Coconut’s where statement is extremely straightforward. The syntax for a where statement is just <stmt> where: <body> which just executes <body> followed by <stmt>. #### Example¶ Coconut: c = a + b where: a = 1 b = 2 Python: a = 1 b = 2 c = a + b ### Handling Keyword/Variable Name Overlap¶ In Coconut, the following keywords are also valid variable names: • async (keyword in Python 3.5) • await (keyword in Python 3.5) • data • match • case • cases • where • addpattern • then • λ (a Unicode alternative for lambda) While Coconut can usually disambiguate these two use cases, special syntax is available for disambiguating these two use cases. To specify that you want a variable, prefix the name with a backslash as in \data, and to specify that you want a keyword, prefix the name with a colon as in :match. Note that, if what you’re writing can be interpreted as valid Python 3, Coconut will always prefer that interpretation by default. In addition to helping with cases where the two uses conflict, such disambiguation syntax can also be helpful for letting syntax highlighters know what you’re doing. #### Examples¶ Coconut: \data = 5 print(\data) # without the colon, Coconut will interpret this as the valid Python match[x, y] = input_list :match [x, y] = input_list Python: data = 5 print(data) x, y = input_list ## Expressions¶ ### Statement Lambdas¶ The statement lambda syntax is an extension of the normal lambda syntax to support statements, not just expressions. The syntax for a statement lambda is def (arguments) -> statement; statement; ... where arguments can be standard function arguments or pattern-matching function definition arguments and statement can be an assignment statement or a keyword statement. If the last statement (not followed by a semicolon) is an expression, it will automatically be returned. Statement lambdas also support implicit lambda syntax such that def -> _ is equivalent to def (_=None) -> _ as well as explicit pattern-matching syntax such that match def (x) -> x will be a pattern-matching function. #### Example¶ Coconut: L |> map$(def (x) ->
y = 1/x;
y*(1 - y))

Python:

def _lambda(x):
y = 1/x
return y*(1 - y)
map(_lambda, L)

#### Type annotations¶

Another case where statement lambdas would be used over standard lambdas is when the parameters to the lambda are typed with type annotations. Statement lambdas use the standard Python syntax for adding type annotations to their parameters:

f = def (c: str) -> print(c)

g = def (a: int, b: int) -> a ** b

### Lazy Lists¶

Coconut supports the creation of lazy lists, where the contents in the list will be treated as an iterator and not evaluated until they are needed. Unlike normal iterators, however, lazy lists can be iterated over multiple times and still return the same result. Lazy lists can be created in Coconut simply by surrounding a comma-separated list of items with (| and |) (so-called “banana brackets”) instead of [ and ] for a list or ( and ) for a tuple.

Lazy lists use reiterable under the hood to enable them to be iterated over multiple times.

#### Rationale¶

Lazy lists, where sequences are only evaluated when their contents are requested, are a mainstay of functional programming, allowing for dynamic evaluation of the list’s contents.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

(| print("hello,"), print("world!") |) |> consume

Python: Can’t be done without a complicated iterator comprehension in place of the lazy list. See the compiled code for the Python syntax.

### Implicit Partial Application¶

Coconut supports a number of different syntactical aliases for common partial application use cases. These are:

.attr           =>      operator.attrgetter("attr")
.method(args)   =>      operator.methodcaller("method", args)
obj.            =>      getattr$(obj) func$           =>      ($)$(func)
seq[]           =>      operator.getitem$(seq) iter$[]         =>      # the equivalent of seq[] for iterators
.[a:b:c]        =>      operator.itemgetter(slice(a, b, c))

Python:

"123"[1]
mod(5, 3)

### Operator Functions¶

Coconut uses a simple operator function short-hand: surround an operator with parentheses to retrieve its function. Similarly to iterator comprehensions, if the operator function is the only argument to a function, the parentheses of the function call can also serve as the parentheses for the operator function.

#### Rationale¶

A very common thing to do in functional programming is to make use of function versions of built-in operators: currying them, composing them, and piping them. To make this easy, Coconut provides a short-hand syntax to access operator functions.

#### Full List¶

(|>)        => # pipe forward
(|*>)       => # multi-arg pipe forward
(|**>)      => # keyword arg pipe forward
(<|)        => # pipe backward
(<*|)       => # multi-arg pipe backward
(<**|)      => # keyword arg pipe backward
(|?>)       => # None-aware pipe forward
(|?*>)      => # None-aware multi-arg pipe forward
(|?**>)     => # None-aware keyword arg pipe forward
(..), (<..) => # backward function composition
(..>)       => # forward function composition
(<*..)      => # multi-arg backward function composition
(..*>)      => # multi-arg forward function composition
(<**..)     => # keyword arg backward function composition
(..**>)     => # keyword arg forward function composition
(.)         => (getattr)
(::)        => (itertools.chain)  # will not evaluate its arguments lazily
($) => (functools.partial) ($[])       => # iterator slicing operator
(-)         => # 1 arg: operator.neg, 2 args: operator.sub
(*)         => (operator.mul)
(**)        => (operator.pow)
(/)         => (operator.truediv)
(//)        => (operator.floordiv)
(%)         => (operator.mod)
(&)         => (operator.and_)
(^)         => (operator.xor)
(|)         => (operator.or_)
(<<)        => (operator.lshift)
(>>)        => (operator.rshift)
(<)         => (operator.lt)
(>)         => (operator.gt)
(==)        => (operator.eq)
(<=)        => (operator.le)
(>=)        => (operator.ge)
(!=)        => (operator.ne)
(~)         => (operator.inv)
(@)         => (operator.matmul)
(not)       => (operator.not_)
(and)       => # boolean and
(or)        => # boolean or
(is)        => (operator.is_)
(in)        => (operator.contains)
(assert)    => # assert function

Coconut:

(range(0, 5), range(5, 10)) |*> map$(+) |> list |> print Python: import operator print(list(map(operator.add, range(0, 5), range(5, 10)))) ### Implicit Function Application¶ Coconut supports implicit function application of the form f x y, which is compiled to f(x, y) (note: not f(x)(y) as is common in many languages with automatic currying). Implicit function application has a lower precedence than .. function composition and a higher precedence than **. Supported arguments to implicit function application are highly restricted, and must be either variables/attributes or non-string constants (e.g. f x 1 will work but f x [1], f x (1+2), and f "abc" will not). Strings are disallowed due to conflicting with Python’s implicit string concatenation. Implicit function application is only intended for simple use cases—for more complex cases, use either standard function application or pipes. #### Examples¶ Coconut: def f(x, y) = (x, y) print (f 5 10) def p1(x) = x + 1 print..p1 5 Python: def f(x, y): return (x, y) print(f(100, 5+6)) def p1(x): return x + 1 print(p1(5)) ### Enhanced Type Annotation¶ Since Coconut syntax is a superset of Python 3 syntax, it supports Python 3 function type annotation syntax and Python 3.6 variable type annotation syntax. By default, Coconut compiles all type annotations into Python-2-compatible type comments. If you want to keep the type annotations instead, simply pass a --target that supports them. Since not all supported Python versions support the typing module, Coconut provides the TYPE_CHECKING built-in for hiding your typing imports and TypeVar definitions from being executed at runtime. Furthermore, when compiling type annotations to Python 3 versions without PEP 563 support, Coconut wraps annotation in strings to prevent them from being evaluated at runtime (note that --no-wrap disables all wrapping, including via PEP 563 support). Additionally, Coconut adds special syntax for making type annotations easier and simpler to write. When inside of a type annotation, Coconut treats certain syntax constructs differently, compiling them to type annotations instead of what they would normally represent. Specifically, Coconut applies the following transformations: <type>? => typing.Optional[<type>] <type>[] => typing.Sequence[<type>] <type>$[]
=> typing.Iterable[<type>]
() -> <ret>
=> typing.Callable[[], <ret>]
<arg> -> <ret>
=> typing.Callable[[<arg>], <ret>]
(<args>) -> <ret>
=> typing.Callable[[<args>], <ret>]
-> <ret>
=> typing.Callable[..., <ret>]
<type> | <type>
=> typing.Union[<type>, <type>]

where typing is the Python 3.5 built-in typing module.

Note: The transformation to Union is not done on Python 3.10 as Python 3.10 has native PEP 604 support.

Importantly, note that <type>[] does not map onto typing.List[<int>] but onto typing.Sequence[<int>]. This is because, when writing in an idiomatic functional style, assignment should be rare and tuples should be common. Using Sequence covers both cases, accommodating tuples and lists and preventing indexed assignment. When an indexed assignment is attempted into a variable typed with Sequence, MyPy will generate an error:

foo: int[] = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
foo[0] = 1   # MyPy error: "Unsupported target for indexed assignment"

If you want to use List instead (if you want to support indexed assignment), use the standard Python 3.5 variable type annotation syntax: foo: List[<type>].

Note: To easily view your defined types, see reveal_type and reveal_locals.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

def int_map(
f: int -> int,
xs: int[],
) -> int[] =
xs |> map$(f) |> list Python: import typing # unlike this typing import, Coconut produces universal code def int_map( f, # type: typing.Callable[[int], int] xs, # type: typing.Sequence[int] ): # type: (...) -> typing.Sequence[int] return list(map(f, xs)) ### Set Literals¶ Coconut allows an optional s to be prepended in front of Python set literals. While in most cases this does nothing, in the case of the empty set it lets Coconut know that it is an empty set and not an empty dictionary. Additionally, an f is also supported, in which case a Python frozenset will be generated instead of a normal set. #### Example¶ Coconut: empty_frozen_set = f{} Python: empty_frozen_set = frozenset() ### Imaginary Literals¶ In addition to Python’s <num>j or <num>J notation for imaginary literals, Coconut also supports <num>i or <num>I, to make imaginary literals more readable if used in a mathematical context. #### Python Docs¶ Imaginary literals are described by the following lexical definitions: imagnumber ::= (floatnumber | intpart) ("j" | "J" | "i" | "I") An imaginary literal yields a complex number with a real part of 0.0. Complex numbers are represented as a pair of floating point numbers and have the same restrictions on their range. To create a complex number with a nonzero real part, add a floating point number to it, e.g., (3+4i). Some examples of imaginary literals: 3.14i 10.i 10i .001i 1e100i 3.14e-10i #### Example¶ Coconut: 3 + 4i |> abs |> print Python: print(abs(3 + 4j)) ### Alternative Ternary Operator¶ Python supports the ternary operator syntax result = if_true if condition else if_false which, since Coconut is a superset of Python, Coconut also supports. However, Coconut also provides an alternative syntax that uses the more conventional argument ordering as result = if condition then if_true else if_false making use of the Coconut-specific then keyword (though Coconut still allows then as a variable name). #### Example¶ Coconut: value = ( if should_use_a() then a else if should_use_b() then b else if should_use_c() then c else fallback ) Python: value = ( a if should_use_a() else b if should_use_b() else c if should_use_c() else fallback ) ## Function Definition¶ ### Tail Call Optimization¶ Coconut will perform automatic tail call optimization and tail recursion elimination on any function that meets the following criteria: 1. it must directly return (using either return or assignment function notation) a call to itself (tail recursion elimination, the most powerful optimization) or another function (tail call optimization), 2. it must not be a generator (uses yield) or an asynchronous function (uses async). Note: Tail call optimization (though not tail recursion elimination) will work even for 1) mutual recursion and 2) pattern-matching functions split across multiple definitions using addpattern. If you are encountering a RuntimeError due to maximum recursion depth, it is highly recommended that you rewrite your function to meet either the criteria above for tail call optimization, or the corresponding criteria for recursive_iterator, either of which should prevent such errors. #### Example¶ Coconut: # unlike in Python, this function will never hit a maximum recursion depth error def factorial(n, acc=1): case n: match 0: return acc match _ is int if n > 0: return factorial(n-1, acc*n) Showcases tail recursion elimination. # unlike in Python, neither of these functions will ever hit a maximum recursion depth error def is_even(0) = True @addpattern(is_even) def is_even(n is int if n > 0) = is_odd(n-1) def is_odd(0) = False @addpattern(is_odd) def is_odd(n is int if n > 0) = is_even(n-1) Showcases tail call optimization. Python: Can’t be done without rewriting the function(s). #### --no-tco flag¶ Note: Tail call optimization will be turned off if you pass the --no-tco command-line option, which is useful if you are having trouble reading your tracebacks and/or need maximum performance. --no-tco does not disable tail recursion elimination. This is because tail recursion elimination is usually faster than doing nothing, while other types of tail call optimization are usually slower than doing nothing. Tail recursion elimination results in a big performance win because Python has a fairly large function call overhead. By unwinding a recursive function, far fewer function calls need to be made. When the --no-tco flag is disabled, Coconut will attempt to do all types of tail call optimizations, handling non-recursive tail calls, split pattern-matching functions, mutual recursion, and tail recursion. When the --no-tco flag is enabled, Coconut will no longer perform any tail call optimizations other than tail recursion elimination. #### Tail Recursion Elimination and Python lambdas¶ Coconut does not perform tail recursion elimination in functions that utilize lambdas in their tail call. This is because of the way that Python handles lambdas. Each lambda stores a pointer to the namespace enclosing it, rather than a copy of the namespace. Thus, if the Coconut compiler tries to recycle anything in the namespace that produced the lambda, which needs to be done for TRE, the lambda can be changed retroactively. A simple example demonstrating this behavior in Python: x = 1 foo = lambda: x print(foo()) # 1 x = 2 # Directly alter the values in the namespace enclosing foo print(foo()) # 2 (!) Because this could have unintended and potentially damaging consequences, Coconut opts to not perform TRE on any function with a lambda in its tail call. ### Assignment Functions¶ Coconut allows for assignment function definition that automatically returns the last line of the function body. An assignment function is constructed by substituting = for : after the function definition line. Thus, the syntax for assignment function definition is either def <name>(<args>) = <expr> for one-liners or def <name>(<args>) = <stmts> <expr> for full functions, where <name> is the name of the function, <args> are the functions arguments, <stmts> are any statements that the function should execute, and <expr> is the value that the function should return. Note: Assignment function definition can be combined with infix and/or pattern-matching function definition. #### Rationale¶ Coconut’s Assignment function definition is as easy to write as assignment to a lambda, but will appear named in tracebacks, as it compiles to normal Python function definition. #### Example¶ Coconut: def binexp(x) = 2**x 5 |> binexp |> print Python: def binexp(x): return 2**x print(binexp(5)) ### Pattern-Matching Functions¶ Coconut pattern-matching functions are just normal functions where the arguments are patterns to be matched against instead of variables to be assigned to. The syntax for pattern-matching function definition is [match] def <name>(<arg>, <arg>, ... [if <cond>]) [-> <return_type>]: <body> where <arg> is defined as [*|**] <pattern> [= <default>] where <name> is the name of the function, <cond> is an optional additional check, <body> is the body of the function, <pattern> is defined by Coconut’s match statement, <default> is the optional default if no argument is passed, and <return_type> is the optional return type annotation (note that argument type annotations are not supported for pattern-matching functions). The match keyword at the beginning is optional, but is sometimes necessary to disambiguate pattern-matching function definition from normal function definition, which will always take precedence. If <pattern> has a variable name (either directly or with as), the resulting pattern-matching function will support keyword arguments using that variable name. If pattern-matching function definition fails, it will raise a MatchError object just like destructuring assignment. Note: Pattern-matching function definition can be combined with assignment and/or infix function definition. #### Example¶ Coconut: def last_two(_ + [a, b]): return a, b def xydict_to_xytuple({"x":x is int, "y":y is int}): return x, y range(5) |> last_two |> print {"x":1, "y":2} |> xydict_to_xytuple |> print Python: Can’t be done without a long series of checks at the top of the function. See the compiled code for the Python syntax. ### addpattern Functions¶ Coconut provides the addpattern def syntax as a shortcut for the full @addpattern(func) match def func(...): ... syntax using the addpattern decorator. If you want to put a decorator on an addpattern def function, make sure to put it on the last pattern function. #### Example¶ Coconut: def factorial(0) = 1 addpattern def factorial(n) = n * factorial(n - 1) Python: Can’t be done without a complicated decorator definition and a long series of checks for each pattern-matching. See the compiled code for the Python syntax. ### Infix Functions¶ Coconut allows for infix function calling, where an expression that evaluates to a function is surrounded by backticks and then can have arguments placed in front of or behind it. Infix calling has a precedence in-between chaining and None-coalescing, and is left-associative. Additionally, infix notation supports a lambda as the last argument, despite lambdas having a lower precedence. Thus, a func b -> c is equivalent to func(a, b -> c). Coconut also supports infix function definition to make defining functions that are intended for infix usage simpler. The syntax for infix function definition is def <arg> <name> <arg>: <body> where <name> is the name of the function, the <arg>s are the function arguments, and <body> is the body of the function. If an <arg> includes a default, the <arg> must be surrounded in parentheses. Note: Infix function definition can be combined with assignment and/or pattern-matching function definition. #### Rationale¶ A common idiom in functional programming is to write functions that are intended to behave somewhat like operators, and to call and define them by placing them between their arguments. Coconut’s infix syntax makes this possible. #### Example¶ Coconut: def a mod b = a % b (x mod 2) print Python: def mod(a, b): return a % b print(mod(x, 2)) ### Explicit Generators¶ Coconut supports the syntax yield def <name>(<args>): <body> to denote that you are explicitly defining a generator function. This is useful to ensure that, even if all the yields in your function are removed, it’ll always be a generator function. Explicit generator functions also support pattern-matching syntax, but not assignment function syntax, as an assignment function would create a generator return, which is usually undesirable. #### Example¶ Coconut: yield def empty_it(): pass Python: def empty_it(): if False: yield ### Dotted Function Definition¶ Coconut allows for function definition using a dotted name to assign a function as a method of an object as specified in PEP 542. #### Example¶ Coconut: def MyClass.my_method(self): ... Python: def my_method(self): ... MyClass.my_method = my_method ## Statements¶ ### Destructuring Assignment¶ Coconut supports significantly enhanced destructuring assignment, similar to Python’s tuple/list destructuring, but much more powerful. The syntax for Coconut’s destructuring assignment is [match] <pattern> = <value> where <value> is any expression and <pattern> is defined by Coconut’s match statement. The match keyword at the beginning is optional, but is sometimes necessary to disambiguate destructuring assignment from normal assignment, which will always take precedence. Coconut’s destructuring assignment is equivalent to a match statement that follows the syntax: match <pattern> in <value>: pass else: err = MatchError(<error message>) err.pattern = "<pattern>" err.value = <value> raise err If a destructuring assignment statement fails, then instead of continuing on as if a match block had failed, a MatchError object will be raised describing the failure. #### Example¶ Coconut: _ + [a, b] = [0, 1, 2, 3] print(a, b) Python: Can’t be done without a long series of checks in place of the destructuring assignment statement. See the compiled code for the Python syntax. ### Decorators¶ Unlike Python, which only supports a single variable or function call in a decorator, Coconut supports any expression as in PEP 614. #### Example¶ Coconut: @ wrapper1 .. wrapper2$(arg)
def func(x) = x**2

Python:

def wrapper(func):
return wrapper1(wrapper2(arg, func))
@wrapper
def func(x):
return x**2

### Statement Nesting¶

Coconut supports the nesting of compound statements on the same line. This allows the mixing of match and if statements together, as well as compound try statements.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

if invalid(input_list):
raise Exception()
else: match [head] + tail in input_list:
else:
print(input_list)

Python:

from collections.abc import Sequence
if invalid(input_list):
raise Exception()
elif isinstance(input_list, Sequence):
else:
print(input_list)

### except Statements¶

Python 3 requires that if multiple exceptions are to be caught, they must be placed inside of parentheses, so as to disallow Python 2’s use of a comma instead of as. Coconut allows commas in except statements to translate to catching multiple exceptions without the need for parentheses, since, as in Python 3, as is always required to bind the exception to a name.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

try:
unsafe_func(arg)
except SyntaxError, ValueError as err:
handle(err)

Python:

try:
unsafe_func(arg)
except (SyntaxError, ValueError) as err:
handle(err)

### Implicit pass¶

Coconut supports the simple class name(base) and data name(args) as aliases for class name(base): pass and data name(args): pass.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

class Tree
data Empty from Tree
data Leaf(item) from Tree
data Node(left, right) from Tree

Python: Can’t be done without a series of method definitions for each data type. See the compiled code for the Python syntax.

### In-line global And nonlocal Assignment¶

Coconut allows for global or nonlocal to precede assignment to a list of variables or (augmented) assignment to a variable to make that assignment global or nonlocal, respectively.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

global state_a, state_b = 10, 100
global state_c += 1

Python:

global state_a, state_b; state_a, state_b = 10, 100
global state_c; state_c += 1

### Code Passthrough¶

Coconut supports the ability to pass arbitrary code through the compiler without being touched, for compatibility with other variants of Python, such as Cython or Mython. Anything placed between \( and the corresponding close parenthesis will be passed through, as well as any line starting with \\, which will have the additional effect of allowing indentation under it.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

\\cdef f(x):
return x |> g

Python:

cdef f(x):
return g(x)

### Enhanced Parenthetical Continuation¶

Since Coconut syntax is a superset of Python 3 syntax, Coconut supports the same line continuation syntax as Python. That means both backslash line continuation and implied line continuation inside of parentheses, brackets, or braces will all work.

In Python, however, there are some cases (such as multiple with statements) where only backslash continuation, and not parenthetical continuation, is supported. Coconut adds support for parenthetical continuation in all these cases.

Supporting parenthetical continuation everywhere allows the PEP 8 convention, which avoids backslash continuation in favor of implied parenthetical continuation, to always be possible to follow. From PEP 8:

The preferred way of wrapping long lines is by using Python’s implied line continuation inside parentheses, brackets and braces. Long lines can be broken over multiple lines by wrapping expressions in parentheses. These should be used in preference to using a backslash for line continuation.

Note: Passing --strict will enforce the PEP 8 convention by disallowing backslash continuations.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

open('/path/to/some/file/being/written', 'w') as file_2):

Python:

# split into two with statements for Python 2.6 compatibility
with open('/path/to/some/file/being/written', 'w') as file_2:

## Built-Ins¶

### Enhanced Built-Ins¶

Coconut’s map, zip, filter, reversed, and enumerate objects are enhanced versions of their Python equivalents that support:

• reversed,

• repr,

• optimized normal (and iterator) slicing (all but filter),

• len (all but filter),

• the ability to be iterated over multiple times if the underlying iterators are iterables,

• PEP 618 zip(..., strict=True) support on all Python versions, and

• have added attributes which subclasses can make use of to get at the original arguments to the object:

• map: func, iters

• zip: iters

• filter: func, iter

• reversed: iter

• enumerate: iter, start

#### Example¶

Coconut:

map((+), range(5), range(6)) |> len |> print
range(10) |> filter$((x) -> x < 5) |> reversed |> tuple |> print Python: Can’t be done without defining a custom map type. The full definition of map can be found in the Coconut header. ### addpattern¶ Takes one argument that is a pattern-matching function, and returns a decorator that adds the patterns in the existing function to the new function being decorated, where the existing patterns are checked first, then the new. Roughly equivalent to: def addpattern(base_func, *, allow_any_func=True): """Decorator to add a new case to a pattern-matching function, where the new case is checked last.""" def pattern_adder(func): def add_pattern_func(*args, **kwargs): try: return base_func(*args, **kwargs) except MatchError: return func(*args, **kwargs) return add_pattern_func return pattern_adder If you want to give an addpattern function a docstring, make sure to put it on the last function. Note that the function taken by addpattern must be a pattern-matching function. If addpattern receives a non pattern-matching function, the function with not raise MatchError, and addpattern won’t be able to detect the failed match. Thus, if a later function was meant to be called, addpattern will not know that the first match failed and the correct path will never be reached. For example, the following code raises a TypeError: def print_type(): print("Received no arguments.") @addpattern(print_type) def print_type(x is int): print("Received an int.") print_type() # appears to work print_type(1) # TypeError: print_type() takes 0 positional arguments but 1 was given This can be fixed by using either the match or addpattern keyword. For example: match def print_type(): print("Received no arguments.") addpattern def print_type(x is int): print("Received an int.") print_type(1) # Works as expected print_type("This is a string.") # Raises MatchError The last case in an addpattern function, however, doesn’t have to be a pattern-matching function if it is intended to catch all remaining cases. To catch this mistake, addpattern will emit a warning if passed what it believes to be a non-pattern-matching function. However, this warning can sometimes be erroneous if the original pattern-matching function has been wrapped in some way, in which case you can pass allow_any_func=True to dismiss the warning. #### Example¶ Coconut: def factorial(0) = 1 @addpattern(factorial) def factorial(n) = n * factorial(n - 1) Python: Can’t be done without a complicated decorator definition and a long series of checks for each pattern-matching. See the compiled code for the Python syntax. #### prepattern¶ DEPRECATED: Coconut also has a prepattern built-in, which adds patterns in the opposite order of addpattern; prepattern is defined as: def prepattern(base_func): """Decorator to add a new case to a pattern-matching function, where the new case is checked first.""" def pattern_prepender(func): return addpattern(func)(base_func) return pattern_prepender Note: Passing --strict disables deprecated features. ### reduce¶ Coconut re-introduces Python 2’s reduce built-in, using the functools.reduce version. #### Python Docs¶ reduce(function, iterable[, initializer]) Apply function of two arguments cumulatively to the items of sequence, from left to right, so as to reduce the sequence to a single value. For example, reduce((x, y) -> x+y, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]) calculates ((((1+2)+3)+4)+5). The left argument, x, is the accumulated value and the right argument, y, is the update value from the sequence. If the optional initializer is present, it is placed before the items of the sequence in the calculation, and serves as a default when the sequence is empty. If initializer is not given and sequence contains only one item, the first item is returned. #### Example¶ Coconut: product = reduce$(*)
range(1, 10) |> product |> print

Python:

import operator
import functools
product = functools.partial(functools.reduce, operator.mul)
print(product(range(1, 10)))

### zip_longest¶

Coconut provides an enhanced version of itertools.zip_longest as a built-in under the name zip_longest. zip_longest supports all the same features as Coconut’s enhanced zip as well as the additional attribute fillvalue.

#### Python Docs¶

zip_longest(*iterables, fillvalue=None)

Make an iterator that aggregates elements from each of the iterables. If the iterables are of uneven length, missing values are filled-in with fillvalue. Iteration continues until the longest iterable is exhausted. Roughly equivalent to:

def zip_longest(*args, fillvalue=None):
# zip_longest('ABCD', 'xy', fillvalue='-') --> Ax By C- D-
iterators = [iter(it) for it in args]
num_active = len(iterators)
if not num_active:
return
while True:
values = []
for i, it in enumerate(iterators):
try:
value = next(it)
except StopIteration:
num_active -= 1
if not num_active:
return
iterators[i] = repeat(fillvalue)
value = fillvalue
values.append(value)
yield tuple(values)

If one of the iterables is potentially infinite, then the zip_longest() function should be wrapped with something that limits the number of calls (for example iterator slicing or takewhile). If not specified, fillvalue defaults to None.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

result = zip_longest(range(5), range(10))

Python:

import itertools
result = itertools.zip_longest(range(5), range(10))

### takewhile¶

Coconut provides itertools.takewhile as a built-in under the name takewhile.

#### Python Docs¶

takewhile(predicate, iterable)

Make an iterator that returns elements from the iterable as long as the predicate is true. Equivalent to:

def takewhile(predicate, iterable):
# takewhile(lambda x: x<5, [1,4,6,4,1]) --> 1 4
for x in iterable:
if predicate(x):
yield x
else:
break

#### Example¶

Coconut:

negatives = takewhile(numiter, x -> x < 0)

Python:

import itertools
negatives = itertools.takewhile(numiter, lambda x: x < 0)

### dropwhile¶

Coconut provides itertools.dropwhile as a built-in under the name dropwhile.

#### Python Docs¶

dropwhile(predicate, iterable)

Make an iterator that drops elements from the iterable as long as the predicate is true; afterwards, returns every element. Note: the iterator does not produce any output until the predicate first becomes false, so it may have a lengthy start-up time. Equivalent to:

def dropwhile(predicate, iterable):
# dropwhile(lambda x: x<5, [1,4,6,4,1]) --> 6 4 1
iterable = iter(iterable)
for x in iterable:
if not predicate(x):
yield x
break
for x in iterable:
yield x

#### Example¶

Coconut:

positives = dropwhile(numiter, x -> x < 0)

Python:

import itertools
positives = itertools.dropwhile(numiter, lambda x: x < 0)

### memoize¶

Coconut provides functools.lru_cache as a built-in under the name memoize with the modification that the maxsize parameter is set to None by default. memoize makes the use case of optimizing recursive functions easier, as a maxsize of None is usually what is desired in that case.

Use of memoize requires functools.lru_cache, which exists in the Python 3 standard library, but under Python 2 will require pip install backports.functools_lru_cache to function. Additionally, if on Python 2 and backports.functools_lru_cache is present, Coconut will patch functools such that functools.lru_cache = backports.functools_lru_cache.lru_cache.

#### Python Docs¶

memoize(maxsize=None, typed=False)

Decorator to wrap a function with a memoizing callable that saves up to the maxsize most recent calls. It can save time when an expensive or I/O bound function is periodically called with the same arguments.

Since a dictionary is used to cache results, the positional and keyword arguments to the function must be hashable.

If maxsize is set to None, the LRU feature is disabled and the cache can grow without bound. The LRU feature performs best when maxsize is a power-of-two.

If typed is set to true, function arguments of different types will be cached separately. For example, f(3) and f(3.0) will be treated as distinct calls with distinct results.

To help measure the effectiveness of the cache and tune the maxsize parameter, the wrapped function is instrumented with a cache_info() function that returns a named tuple showing hits, misses, maxsize and currsize. In a multi-threaded environment, the hits and misses are approximate.

The decorator also provides a cache_clear() function for clearing or invalidating the cache.

The original underlying function is accessible through the __wrapped__ attribute. This is useful for introspection, for bypassing the cache, or for rewrapping the function with a different cache.

An LRU (least recently used) cache works best when the most recent calls are the best predictors of upcoming calls (for example, the most popular articles on a news server tend to change each day). The cache’s size limit assures that the cache does not grow without bound on long-running processes such as web servers.

Example of an LRU cache for static web content:

@memoize(maxsize=32)
def get_pep(num):
'Retrieve text of a Python Enhancement Proposal'
resource = 'http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-%04d/' % num
try:
with urllib.request.urlopen(resource) as s:
except urllib.error.HTTPError:

>>> for n in 8, 290, 308, 320, 8, 218, 320, 279, 289, 320, 9991:
...     pep = get_pep(n)
...     print(n, len(pep))

>>> get_pep.cache_info()
CacheInfo(hits=3, misses=8, maxsize=32, currsize=8)

#### Example¶

Coconut:

def fib(n if n < 2) = n

@memoize()
def fib(n) = fib(n-1) + fib(n-2)

Python:

try:
from functools import lru_cache
except ImportError:
from backports.functools_lru_cache import lru_cache
@lru_cache(maxsize=None)
def fib(n):
if n < 2:
return n
return fib(n-1) + fib(n-2)

### override¶

Coconut provides the @override decorator to allow declaring a method definition in a subclass as an override of some parent class method. When @override is used on a method, if a method of the same name does not exist on some parent class, the class definition will raise a RuntimeError.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

class A:
x = 1
def f(self, y) = self.x + y

class B:
@override
def f(self, y) = self.x + y + 1

Python: Can’t be done without a long decorator definition. The full definition of the decorator in Python can be found in the Coconut header.

### groupsof¶

Coconut provides the groupsof built-in to split an iterable into groups of a specific length. Specifically, groupsof(n, iterable) will split iterable into tuples of length n, with only the last tuple potentially of size < n if the length of iterable is not divisible by n.

Coconut:

pairs = range(1, 11) |> groupsof$(2) Python: pairs = [] group = [] for item in range(1, 11): group.append(item) if len(group) == 2: pairs.append(tuple(group)) group = [] if group: pairs.append(tuple(group)) ### tee¶ Coconut provides an optimized version of itertools.tee as a built-in under the name tee. #### Python Docs¶ tee(iterable, n=2) Return n independent iterators from a single iterable. Equivalent to: def tee(iterable, n=2): it = iter(iterable) deques = [collections.deque() for i in range(n)] def gen(mydeque): while True: if not mydeque: # when the local deque is empty newval = next(it) # fetch a new value and for d in deques: # load it to all the deques d.append(newval) yield mydeque.popleft() return tuple(gen(d) for d in deques) Once tee() has made a split, the original iterable should not be used anywhere else; otherwise, the iterable could get advanced without the tee objects being informed. This itertool may require significant auxiliary storage (depending on how much temporary data needs to be stored). In general, if one iterator uses most or all of the data before another iterator starts, it is faster to use list() instead of tee(). #### Example¶ Coconut: original, temp = tee(original) sliced = temp$[5:]

Python:

import itertools
original, temp = itertools.tee(original)
sliced = itertools.islice(temp, 5, None)

### reiterable¶

Sometimes, when an iterator may need to be iterated over an arbitrary number of times, tee can be cumbersome to use. For such cases, Coconut provides reiterable, which wraps the given iterator such that whenever an attempt to iterate over it is made, it iterates over a tee instead of the original.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

def list_type(xs):
case reiterable(xs):
match [fst, snd] :: tail:
return "at least 2"
match [fst] :: tail:
return "at least 1"
match (| |):
return "empty"

Python: Can’t be done without a long series of checks for each match statement. See the compiled code for the Python syntax.

### consume¶

Coconut provides the consume function to efficiently exhaust an iterator and thus perform any lazy evaluation contained within it. consume takes one optional argument, keep_last, that defaults to 0 and specifies how many, if any, items from the end to return as an iterable (None will keep all elements).

Equivalent to:

def consume(iterable, keep_last=0):
"""Fully exhaust iterable and return the last keep_last elements."""
return collections.deque(iterable, maxlen=keep_last)  # fastest way to exhaust an iterator

#### Rationale¶

In the process of lazily applying operations to iterators, eventually a point is reached where evaluation of the iterator is necessary. To do this efficiently, Coconut provides the consume function, which will fully exhaust the iterator given to it.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

range(10) |> map$((x) -> x**2) |> map$(print) |> consume

Python:

collections.deque(map(print, map(lambda x: x**2, range(10))), maxlen=0)

### count¶

Coconut provides a modified version of itertools.count that supports in, normal slicing, optimized iterator slicing, the standard count and index sequence methods, repr, and start/step attributes as a built-in under the name count.

Additionally, if the step parameter is set to None, count will behave like itertools.repeat instead.

#### Python Docs¶

count(start=0, step=1)

Make an iterator that returns evenly spaced values starting with number start. Often used as an argument to map() to generate consecutive data points. Also, used with zip() to add sequence numbers. Roughly equivalent to:

def count(start=0, step=1):
# count(10) --> 10 11 12 13 14 ...
# count(2.5, 0.5) -> 2.5 3.0 3.5 ...
n = start
while True:
yield n
if step:
n += step

Coconut:

count()$[10**100] |> print Python: Can’t be done quickly without Coconut’s iterator slicing, which requires many complicated pieces. The necessary definitions in Python can be found in the Coconut header. ### makedata¶ Coconut provides the makedata function to construct a container given the desired type and contents. This is particularly useful when writing alternative constructors for data types by overwriting __new__, since it allows direct access to the base constructor of the data type created with the Coconut data statement. makedata takes the data type to construct as the first argument, and the objects to put in that container as the rest of the arguments. DEPRECATED: Coconut also has a datamaker built-in, which partially applies makedata; datamaker is defined as: def datamaker(data_type): """Get the original constructor of the given data type or class.""" return makedata$(data_type)

Note: Passing --strict disables deprecated features.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

data Tuple(elems):
def __new__(cls, *elems):
return elems |> makedata$(cls) Python: Can’t be done without a series of method definitions for each data type. See the compiled code for the Python syntax. ### fmap¶ In functional programming, fmap(func, obj) takes a data type obj and returns a new data type with func mapped over the contents. Coconut’s fmap function does the exact same thing in Coconut. fmap can also be used on built-ins such as str, list, set, and dict as a variant of map that returns back an object of the same type. The behavior of fmap for a given object can be overridden by defining an __fmap__(self, func) magic method that will be called whenever fmap is invoked on that object. For dict, or any other collections.abc.Mapping, fmap will starmap over the mapping’s .items() instead of the default iteration through its .keys(). As an additional special case, for numpy and pandas objects, fmap will use np.vectorize to produce the result. #### Example¶ Coconut: [1, 2, 3] |> fmap$(x -> x+1) == [2, 3, 4]

class Maybe
data Nothing() from Maybe
data Just(n) from Maybe

Just(3) |> fmap$(x -> x*2) == Just(6) Nothing() |> fmap$(x -> x*2) == Nothing()

Python: Can’t be done without a series of method definitions for each data type. See the compiled code for the Python syntax.

### starmap¶

Coconut provides a modified version of itertools.starmap that supports reversed, repr, optimized normal (and iterator) slicing, len, and func/iter attributes.

#### Python Docs¶

starmap(function, iterable)

Make an iterator that computes the function using arguments obtained from the iterable. Used instead of map() when argument parameters are already grouped in tuples from a single iterable (the data has been “pre-zipped”). The difference between map() and starmap() parallels the distinction between function(a,b) and function(*c). Roughly equivalent to:

def starmap(function, iterable):
# starmap(pow, [(2,5), (3,2), (10,3)]) --> 32 9 1000
for args in iterable:
yield function(*args)

#### Example¶

Coconut:

range(1, 5) |> map$(range) |> starmap$(print) |> consume

Python:

import itertools, collections
collections.deque(itertools.starmap(print, map(range, range(1, 5))), maxlen=0)

### scan¶

Coconut provides a modified version of itertools.accumulate with opposite argument order as scan that also supports repr, len, and func/iter/initializer attributes. scan works exactly like reduce, except that instead of only returning the last accumulated value, it returns an iterator of all the intermediate values.

#### Python Docs¶

scan(function, iterable[, initializer])

Make an iterator that returns accumulated results of some function of two arguments. Elements of the input iterable may be any type that can be accepted as arguments to function. (For example, with the operation of addition, elements may be any addable type including Decimal or Fraction.) If the input iterable is empty, the output iterable will also be empty.

If no initializer is given, roughly equivalent to:

def scan(function, iterable):
'Return running totals'
# scan(operator.add, [1,2,3,4,5]) --> 1 3 6 10 15
# scan(operator.mul, [1,2,3,4,5]) --> 1 2 6 24 120
it = iter(iterable)
try:
total = next(it)
except StopIteration:
return
yield total
for element in it:
total = function(total, element)
yield total

#### Example¶

Coconut:

input_data = [3, 4, 6, 2, 1, 9, 0, 7, 5, 8]
running_max = input_data |> scan$(max) |> list Python: input_data = [3, 4, 6, 2, 1, 9, 0, 7, 5, 8] running_max = [] max_so_far = input_data[0] for x in input_data: if x > max_so_far: max_so_far = x running_max.append(x) ### flatten¶ Coconut provides an enhanced version of itertools.chain.from_iterable as a built-in under the name flatten with added support for reversed, repr, in, .count(), .index(), and fmap. #### Python Docs¶ chain.from_iterable(iterable) Alternate constructor for chain(). Gets chained inputs from a single iterable argument that is evaluated lazily. Roughly equivalent to: def flatten(iterables): # flatten(['ABC', 'DEF']) --> A B C D E F for it in iterables: for element in it: yield element #### Example¶ Coconut: iter_of_iters = [[1, 2], [3, 4]] flat_it = iter_of_iters |> flatten |> list Python: from itertools import chain iter_of_iters = [[1, 2], [3, 4]] flat_it = iter_of_iters |> chain.from_iterable |> list ### recursive_iterator¶ Coconut provides a recursive_iterator decorator that provides significant optimizations for any stateless, recursive function that returns an iterator. To use recursive_iterator on a function, it must meet the following criteria: 1. your function either always returns an iterator or generates an iterator using yield, 2. when called multiple times with arguments that are equal, your function produces the same iterator (your function is stateless), and 3. your function gets called (usually calls itself) multiple times with the same arguments. If you are encountering a RuntimeError due to maximum recursion depth, it is highly recommended that you rewrite your function to meet either the criteria above for recursive_iterator, or the corresponding criteria for Coconut’s tail call optimization, either of which should prevent such errors. Furthermore, recursive_iterator also allows the resolution of a nasty segmentation fault in Python’s iterator logic that has never been fixed. Specifically, instead of writing seq = get_elem() :: seq which will crash due to the aforementioned Python issue, write @recursive_iterator def seq() = get_elem() :: seq() which will work just fine. One pitfall to keep in mind working with recursive_iterator is that it shouldn’t be used in contexts where the function can potentially be called multiple times with the same iterator object as an input, but with that object not actually corresponding to the same items (e.g. because the first time the object hasn’t been iterated over yet and the second time it has been). #### Example¶ Coconut: @recursive_iterator def fib() = (1, 1) :: map((+), fib(), fib()$[1:])

Python: Can’t be done without a long decorator definition. The full definition of the decorator in Python can be found in the Coconut header.

### parallel_map¶

Coconut provides a parallel version of map under the name parallel_map. parallel_map makes use of multiple processes, and is therefore much faster than map for CPU-bound tasks. parallel_map never loads the entire input iterator into memory, though it does consume the entire input iterator as soon as a single output is requested. If any exceptions are raised inside of parallel_map, a traceback will be printed as soon as they are encountered.

Because parallel_map uses multiple processes for its execution, it is necessary that all of its arguments be pickleable. Only objects defined at the module level, and not lambdas, objects defined inside of a function, or objects defined inside of the interpreter, are pickleable. Furthermore, on Windows, it is necessary that all calls to parallel_map occur inside of an if __name__ == "__main__" guard.

If multiple sequential calls to parallel_map need to be made, it is highly recommended that they be done inside of a with parallel_map.multiple_sequential_calls(): block, which will cause the different calls to use the same process pool and result in parallel_map immediately returning a list rather than a parallel_map object. If multiple sequential calls are necessary and the laziness of parallel_map is required, then the parallel_map objects should be constructed before the multiple_sequential_calls block and then only iterated over once inside the block.

parallel_map.multiple_sequential_calls also supports a max_workers argument to set the number of processes.

#### Python Docs¶

parallel_map(func, *iterables, chunksize=1)

Equivalent to map(func, *iterables) except func is executed asynchronously and several calls to func may be made concurrently. If a call raises an exception, then that exception will be raised when its value is retrieved from the iterator.

parallel_map chops the iterable into a number of chunks which it submits to the process pool as separate tasks. The (approximate) size of these chunks can be specified by setting chunksize to a positive integer. For very long iterables using a large value for chunksize can make the job complete much faster than using the default value of 1.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

parallel_map(pow\$(2), range(100)) |> list |> print

Python:

import functools
from multiprocessing import Pool
with Pool() as pool:
print(list(pool.imap(functools.partial(pow, 2), range(100))))

### concurrent_map¶

Coconut provides a concurrent version of parallel_map under the name concurrent_map. concurrent_map behaves identically to parallel_map except that it uses multithreading instead of multiprocessing, and is therefore primarily useful for IO-bound tasks.

#### Python Docs¶

concurrent_map(func, *iterables, chunksize=1)

Equivalent to map(func, *iterables) except func is executed asynchronously and several calls to func may be made concurrently. If a call raises an exception, then that exception will be raised when its value is retrieved from the iterator.

concurrent_map chops the iterable into a number of chunks which it submits to the process pool as separate tasks. The (approximate) size of these chunks can be specified by setting chunksize to a positive integer. For very long iterables using a large value for chunksize can make the job complete much faster than using the default value of 1.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

concurrent_map(get_data_for_user, get_all_users()) |> list |> print

Python:

import functools
import concurrent.futures
print(list(executor.map(get_data_for_user, get_all_users())))

### MatchError¶

A MatchError is raised when a destructuring assignment statement fails, and thus MatchError is provided as a built-in for catching those errors. MatchError objects support three attributes: pattern, which is a string describing the failed pattern; value, which is the object that failed to match that pattern; and message which is the full error message. To avoid unnecessary repr calls, MatchError only computes the message once it is actually requested.

Additionally, if you are using view patterns, you might need to raise your own MatchError (though you can also just use a destructuring assignment or pattern-matching function definition to do so). To raise your own MatchError, just raise MatchError(pattern, value) (both arguments are optional).

### TYPE_CHECKING¶

The TYPE_CHECKING variable is set to False at runtime and True during type-checking, allowing you to prevent your typing imports and TypeVar definitions from being executed at runtime. By wrapping your typing imports in an if TYPE_CHECKING: block, you can even use the typing module on Python versions that don’t natively support it. Furthermore, TYPE_CHECKING can also be used to hide code that is mistyped by default.

#### Python Docs¶

A special constant that is assumed to be True by 3rd party static type checkers. It is False at runtime. Usage:

if TYPE_CHECKING:
import expensive_mod

def fun(arg: expensive_mod.SomeType) -> None:
local_var: expensive_mod.AnotherType = other_fun()

#### Examples¶

Coconut:

if TYPE_CHECKING:
from typing import List
x: List[str] = ["a", "b"]
if TYPE_CHECKING:
def factorial(n: int) -> int: ...
else:
def factorial(0) = 1
addpattern def factorial(n) = n * factorial(n-1)

Python:

try:
from typing import TYPE_CHECKING
except ImportError:
TYPE_CHECKING = False

if TYPE_CHECKING:
from typing import List
x: List[str] = ["a", "b"]
try:
from typing import TYPE_CHECKING
except ImportError:
TYPE_CHECKING = False

if TYPE_CHECKING:
def factorial(n: int) -> int: ...
else:
def factorial(n):
if n == 0:
return 1
else:
return n * factorial(n-1)

### reveal_type and reveal_locals¶

When using MyPy, reveal_type(<expr>) will cause MyPy to print the type of <expr> and reveal_locals() will cause MyPy to print the types of the current locals(). At runtime, reveal_type(x) is always the identity function and reveal_locals() always returns None. See the MyPy documentation for more information.

#### Example¶

Coconut:

> coconut --mypy
Coconut Interpreter vX.X.X:
(enter 'exit()' or press Ctrl-D to end)
>>> reveal_type(fmap)
<function fmap at 0x00000239B06E2040>
<string>:17: note: Revealed type is 'def [_T, _U] (func: def (_T-1) -> _U-2, obj: typing.Iterable[_T-1]) -> typing.Iterable[_U-2]'
>>>

Python

try:
from typing import TYPE_CHECKING
except ImportError:
TYPE_CHECKING = False

if not TYPE_CHECKING:
def reveal_type(x):
return x

from coconut.__coconut__ import fmap
reveal_type(fmap)

## Coconut API¶

### coconut.embed¶

coconut.embed(kernel=None, depth=0, **kwargs)

If kernel=False (default), embeds a Coconut Jupyter console initialized from the current local namespace. If kernel=True, launches a Coconut Jupyter kernel initialized from the local namespace that can then be attached to. The depth indicates how many additional call frames to ignore. kwargs are as in IPython.embed or IPython.embed_kernel based on kernel.

Recommended usage is as a debugging tool, where the code from coconut import embed; embed() can be inserted to launch an interactive Coconut shell initialized from that point.

### Automatic Compilation¶

If you don’t care about the exact compilation parameters you want to use, automatic compilation lets Coconut take care of everything for you. Automatic compilation can be enabled either by importing coconut.convenience before you import anything else, or by running coconut --site-install. Once automatic compilation is enabled, Coconut will check each of your imports to see if you are attempting to import a .coco file and, if so, automatically compile it for you. Note that, for Coconut to know what file you are trying to import, it will need to be accessible via sys.path, just like a normal import.

Automatic compilation always compiles modules and packages in-place, and always uses --target sys. Automatic compilation is always available in the Coconut interpreter, and, if using the Coconut interpreter, a reload built-in is provided to easily reload imported modules. Additionally, the interpreter always allows importing from the current working directory, letting you easily compile and play around with a .coco file simply by running the Coconut interpreter and importing it.

### Coconut Encoding¶

While automatic compilation is the preferred method for dynamically compiling Coconut files, as it caches the compiled code as a .py file to prevent recompilation, Coconut also supports a special

# coding: coconut

declaration which can be added to .py files to have them treated as Coconut files instead. To use such a coding declaration, you’ll need to either run coconut --site-install or import coconut.convenience at some point before you first attempt to import a file with a # coding: coconut declaration. Like automatic compilation, compilation is always done with --target sys and is always available from the Coconut interpreter.

### coconut.convenience¶

In addition to enabling automatic compilation, coconut.convenience can also be used to call the Coconut compiler from code instead of from the command line. See below for specifications of the different convenience functions.

#### parse¶

coconut.convenience.parse([code, [mode]])

Likely the most useful of the convenience functions, parse takes Coconut code as input and outputs the equivalent compiled Python code. The second argument, mode, is used to indicate the context for the parsing.

If code is not passed, parse will output just the given mode’s header, which can be executed to set up an execution environment in which future code can be parsed and executed without a header.

Each mode has two components: what parser it uses, and what header it prepends. The parser determines what Coconut code is allowed as input, and the header determines how the compiled Python can be used. Possible values of mode are:

• "sys": (the default)

• parser: file

• The file parser can parse any Coconut code.

• This header imports coconut.__coconut__ to access the necessary Coconut objects.

• "exec":

• parser: file

• When passed to exec at the global level, this header will create all the necessary Coconut objects itself instead of importing them.

• "file":

• parser: file

• This header is meant to be written to a --standalone file and should not be passed to exec.

• "package":

• parser: file

• This header is meant to be written to a --package file and should not be passed to exec.

• "block":

• parser: file

• No header is included, thus this can only be passed to exec if code with a header has already been executed at the global level.

• "single":

• parser: single

• Can only parse one line of Coconut code.

• "eval":

• parser: eval

• Can only parse a Coconut expression, not a statement.

• "any":

• parser: any

• Can parse any Coconut code, allows leading whitespace, and has no trailing newline.

##### Example¶
from coconut.convenience import parse
exec(parse())
while True:
exec(parse(input(), mode="block"))

#### setup¶

coconut.convenience.setup(target, strict, minify, line_numbers, keep_lines, no_tco)

setup can be used to pass command line flags for use in parse. The possible values for each flag argument are:

• target: None (default), or any allowable target

• strict: False (default) or True

• minify: False (default) or True

• line_numbers: False (default) or True

• keep_lines: False (default) or True

• no_tco: False (default) or True

#### cmd¶

coconut.convenience.cmd(args, [interact])

Executes the given args as if they were fed to coconut on the command-line, with the exception that unless interact is true or -i is passed, the interpreter will not be started. Additionally, since parse and cmd share the same convenience parsing object, any changes made to the parsing with cmd will work just as if they were made with setup.

#### coconut_eval¶

coconut.convenience.coconut_eval(expression, globals=None, locals=None)

Version of eval which can evaluate Coconut code. Uses the same convenience parsing object as the other functions and thus can be controlled by setup.

#### version¶

coconut.convenience.version([which])

Retrieves a string containing information about the Coconut version. The optional argument which is the type of version information desired. Possible values of which are:

• "num": the numerical version (the default)

• "name": the version codename

• "spec": the numerical version with the codename attached

• "tag": the version tag used in GitHub and documentation URLs

• "-v": the full string printed by coconut -v

#### auto_compilation¶

coconut.convenience.auto_compilation(on=True)

Turns automatic compilation on or off. This function is called automatically when coconut.convenience is imported.

#### use_coconut_breakpoint¶

coconut.convenience.use_coconut_breakpoint(on=True)

Switches the breakpoint built-in which Coconut makes universally available to use coconut.embed instead of pdb.set_trace (or undoes that switch if on=False). This function is called automatically when coconut.convenience is imported.

#### CoconutException¶

If an error is encountered in a convenience function, a CoconutException instance may be raised. coconut.convenience.CoconutException is provided to allow catching such errors.

### coconut.__coconut__¶

It is sometimes useful to be able to access Coconut built-ins from pure Python. To accomplish this, Coconut provides coconut.__coconut__, which behaves exactly like the __coconut__.py header file included when Coconut is compiled in package mode.

All Coconut built-ins are accessible from coconut.__coconut__. The recommended way to import them is to use from coconut.__coconut__ import and import whatever built-ins you’ll be using.

#### Example¶

from coconut.__coconut__ import parallel_map